|What biofertilizers are recommended for crops?
Rhizobium + Phosphotika at 200 gm each per 10 kg of seed as seed treatment are recommended for pulses such as pigeonpea, green gram, black gram, cowpea etc, groundnut and soybean.
Azotobacter + Phosphotika at 200 gm each per 10 kg of seed as seed treatment are useful for wheat, sorghum, maize, cotton, mustard etc.
For transplanted rice, the recommendation is to dip the roots of seedlings for 8 to 10 hours in a solution of Azospirillum + Phosphotika at 5 kg each per ha.
|How biofertilizers are applied to crops?
Seed treatment: - 200 g of nitrogenous biofertilizer and 200 g of Phosphotika are suspended in 300-400 ml of water and mixed thoroughly. Ten kg seeds are treated with this paste and dried in shade. The treated seeds have to be sown as soon as possible.
Seedling root dip: - For rice crop, a bed is made in the field and filled with water. Recommended biofertilizers are mixed in this water and the roots of seedlings are dipped for 8-10 hrs.
Soil treatment: - 4 kg each of the recommended biofertilizers are mixed in 200 kg of compost and kept overnight. This mixture is incorporated in the soil at the time of sowing or planting.
|How could one get good response to biofertilizer application?
Biofertilizer product must contain good effective strain in appropriate population and should be free from contaminating microorganisms.
Ensure the supply of nutrients, phosphorus and other elements. Select right combination of biofertilizers and use before expiry date.
Use suggested method of application and apply at appropriate time as per the information provided on the label.
For seed treatment adequate adhesive should be used for better results.
For problematic soils use corrective methods like lime or gypsum pelleting of seeds or correction of soil pH by use of lime.
|What would be probable reasons for getting low response from the application of biofertilizers?
On account of quality of product
Use of ineffective strain.
Insufficient population of microorganisms.
High level of contaminants.
On account of inadequate storage facilities
May have been exposed to high temperature.
May have been stored in hostile conditions.
On account of usage
Not used by recommended method in appropriate doses.
Poor quality adhesive.
Used with strong doses of plant protection chemicals.
On account of soil and environment
High soil temperature or low soil moisture.
Acidity or alkalinity in soil.
Poor availability of phosphorous and molybdenum.
Presence of high native population or presence of bacteriophages.
|What precautions one should take for using biofertilizers?
Biofertilizer packets need to be stored in cool and dry place away from direct sunlight and heat.
Right combinations of biofertilizers have to be used.
As Rhizobium is crop specific, one should use for the specified crop only.
Other chemicals should not be mixed with the biofertilizers.
While purchasing one should ensure that each packet is provided with necessary information like name of the product, name of the crop for which intended, name and address of the manufacturer, date of manufacture, date of expiry, batch number and instructions for use.
The packet has to be used before its expiry, only for the specified crop and by the recommended method of application.
Biofertilizers are live product and require care in the storage
Both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers are to be used to get the best results.
Sometimes during transition, it is important to use biofertilizers along with chemical fertilizers and organic manures. But chemicals must be avoided in plants and food as soon as possible, because it kills good microorganisms.
Biofertilizers are not replacement of fertilizers but can supplement plant nutrient requirements.