Soil  -
Soils - Organic and Natural Products - BioFertilizer
Soil nutrient management involves not only the physical properties and mineral structure of the soil, but also the balance between soil pathogens and beneficial microbes. Beneficial microbes increase nutrient availability, reduce disease, reduce nutrient losses, and help degrade toxic compounds. Plants thrive or suffer, depending on the type of microbes in the rhizoshere (the area around the roots.) In a healthy rhizoshere, dominated by beneficial microbes, plant life and soil life work together to produce healthy plants. - - Conversely, in unhealthy soil, dominated by pathogenic microbes, optimum plant growth is unattainable.
Soil Management - A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people. By Franklin D. Roosevelt
Soil nutrient management is vital to any sustainable agriculture strategy. -
Plant nutrition is only one of more than fifty factors which directly affect both crop yield and quality. The availability of required nutrients, together with the degree of interaction between these nutrients and the soil, play a vital role in crop development. A deficiency in any one required nutrient or, a soil condition that limits or prevents a metabolic function from occurring can limit plant growth.
A soil nutrient management plan should include analyzing soil deficiencies to - determine the type, application rate, application interval, and the placement of any nutrients required to optimize short and long term productivity
There is a significant difference between an induced deficiency and a real soil deficiency. For example, certain crops require the addition of molybdenum at a specific rate for optimum growth. This is a real deficiency. In other crops zinc or iron deficiencies, caused by high levels of phosphorus and active calcium, can result in reduced yield. This is an induced deficiency.
Typically, when deficiencies occur, the tendency is to foliar or soil apply copious amounts of product and hope for a favorable result. This ad hoc approach seldom achieves the expected result and is certainly not cost effective.
The simple fact is, diagnosis is the first step in determining an appropriate corrective action which many include a combination of treatments or a program that incorporates several applications of different products at different application rates and intervals.
When soil is depleted there are two methods for restoring its fertility it can be left idle for several years allowing it to rebuild naturally or organic matter, in the form of crop residue, together with a microbial based inoculant can be applied from an external source. In the latter case, the rebuilding process is accelerated and optimal conditions for soil biological activity and long term soil fertility are maintained
Soil organic matter is vital in rebuilding depleted soil as it ensures a continuous energy source for soil biomass. Soil biomass, consisting of microbes, fungi, algae, protozoa etc. transform organic molecules into mineral elements that are readily available to plants and help maintain good soil structure by transforming organic matter into humus and producing compounds that cement small soil particles together, promoting both increased drainage and moisture retention.
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) - Cation exchange capacity measures the soil's ability to hold nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, as well as other positively charged ions such as sodium and hydrogen. The CEC of a soil is dependent upon the amounts and types of clay minerals and organic matter present. The common expression for CEC is in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams (meq/100g) of soil . The CEC of soil can range from less than 5 to 35 meq/100g for agricultural type soils. Soils with high CEC will generally have higher levels of clay and organic matter. For example, one would expect soil with a silty clay loam texture to have a considerably higher CEC than a sandy loam soil . Although high CEC soils can hold more nutrients, it doesn't necessarily mean that they are more productive. Much depends on good soil management.
Cation Saturation - Cation saturation refers to the proportion of the CEC occupied by a given cation (an ion with a positive charge such as calcium, magnesium or potassium). The percentage saturation for each of the cations will usually be within the following ranges: - Calcium: - - 40 to 80 percent - Magnesium: - 10 to 40 percent - Potassium: - 1 to 5 percent
Enriching the Earth and the Transformation of World Food Production. The use of nitrogen in the biosphere, and its role in crop production, and traditional means of supplying the nutrient trought fertilizers. The large-scale nitrogen fertilizer industry and analyzes the global process and its biospheric consequences. The Haber process is one of the the most significant development in the industry. History and chemistry of this vital process.
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Fertilizer Soil 2022
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